Novocherkassk one of the large южнороссийских city. He stands out both its glorious historian, and its special look: planning, architecture, unique monument. Novocherkassk is conceived and founded in 1805 as capital Troops Donskogo.
The First that sees the person, въезжающий in Novocherkassk, this enormous triumphal arches, erected in honour of participations донских cossacks in Domestic war 1812. Two alike arches сооружены on въездах in city: one with west, the other with northeasterly sides on project of the stolichny architect A.I.Ruska in 1817 at lifes of the founder of the city, glorified донского of the ataman, hero of the Domestic war 1812, column Matveya Ivanovicha Platova (the photo).
Rising upwards no Platovskomu avenue with west sides, turn out to be on Azovskoy area, in name which is bolted history memory. Protecting south borders russian state, донские cossacks during several centuries the stubborn fight for fortress Azov. The Heroic page to histories донского cossacks famous Azovskoe sitting (1641), when small cossack garrison to fortresses выстоял against precipitated fortress многотысячного turkish troops.
Pawning in 1805 new capital донского cossacks, M.I.Charge привлек to development of the general project of the known military engineer F.P.Devolana, which has aptly fastened the plan of the city to natural relief of terrain. The Base of the strict classical planning Novocherkasska form three his (its) mains of the avenue: Platovskiy, Ermakovskiy and Baklanovskiy, united greater area, from which radial disperse the streets. The United plan town застройки has allowed to avoid her (its) chaotic natures and reach the expressive ансамблевого of the decision. Samobytnosti architectral look Novocherkasska will add the combination of the buildings, executed in classical style, and typical казачьих куреней.
In the centre area is located Mihaylo-Archangelsk temple, built in 1870 In his (its) look dominate the line "russian stiletto": bulbous chapters, шатровое termination to bell towers, бочкообразные полуколонны. The Of the same name wooden church was carried from Starocherkasska, but stood not here, but on nearby Staromihaylovskoy area, for market (now pl. Kirova). Thence, having ed litany, left in march on war with Napoleonom казачье army.
Before revolution in Novocherkasske numbered, aside from brownie, fourteen церквей. Except orthodox temple was else lutheran кирха and polish catholic roman catholic church. Alongside with культовым by purpose they executed else and role cultural centre. For instance, in 1914 in кирхе with concerto emerged the actors of the Big theatre of the Moscow, sang the chorus under management Listopadova A.M., the known collector донского folklore. Now remained eight temples and all him is returned their initial purpose.
Since intensive construction of the city began with the second half XIX age, at period mastery eclectics, buildings such stiletto it is enough much. Their architectral look characteristic broad range forms and liberty of the choice motive in decorating facade.
Here is closed facades two commanding buildings винодельческого plant Sokolova on avenue Platovskom, 67 (now винзавод and military hospital) with rich, juicy лепниной, which produce an impression persisting palace architecture. And not at all provincial, but straight-таки of the stolichny sense. Powerful гермы atlanta, supporting cornice, sculptured masks "сарматской of the tsarina" we shall meet not yet once in interior of the building of the military meeting on Moscow street.
On intersection Platovskogo avenue and Moscow street is located administrative centre Novocherkasska. In the centre area in 1853 was erected monument founder city ataman M.I. PLATOVU. He was created on order of the Troop rule known russian sculptor: academician A.A.Ivanovym, N.A.Tokarevym and P.K.Klodtom. In 1923 statue was lost. The Monument is reconstructed in 1993 moscow sculptor A.V.Tarasenko. Rash moving the mace "вихорь-ataman" points to west, where he водил their own казачьи regiments before most Paris. Two-story building is located For Platovskim garden in stiletto of the classicism Atamanskiy palace (now one of the buildings Museum to histories донского cossacks). He served both residence наказного troop ataman, and revenge of stay in Novocherkasske the most high persons: Alexander II, Alexander III, Nikolaya II, visitted city. Here, in Atamanskom palace, January 29 1918 was tragically torn off life first after revolution of the electoral ataman A.M.Kaledina.
Moscow was a central street of the city, where boilled trade and walked the reposing public. Was it Here found and building Oficerskogo meetings (1890; now Central library of the name A.S.Pushkin) with remarkable interior. Big двусветный ballroom with sculptured decorated ceilng, decorated орнаментальными frieze, картушами, attribute of the military heraldry and гермами warrior. Between upper light window signs донских regiment, differed in battles. The Attics for orchestra, undersetted гермами atlanta on powerful bracket. The Big common-room united with small, blue, and winter garden. There were separate rooms of the rest, billiard room, chess, dinning-room. In them is made heaters, wrought by marble, лепниной, artistic metal. Specifically notable декор table, where орнаментальные to compositions decorated ceilng teem the scenes especially донской of flora and faunas: яблок, grape, quail, fish, cancer.
On central area of the city stands out else several capital buildings, fallen into obligatory set губернского city: building Regional присутственных places with импозантным десятиколонным by portico (1844; now Military institute relationship), judicial determinations (1909; the architect A.N.Beketov; now townhouse of the culture and Cossack драмтеатр im. V.F.Komissarzhevskoy, Russian-Asiatic bank (1905; the architect S.N.Boldyrev; the building of the former Building pioneer), Donskogo museum (1899; now Museum to histories донского cossacks), which in 1999 was performed one hundred years.
This unique and single museum in the world, where is collected the most rare material on histories cossacks, troop клейноды and знамена, collections жалованного and reward plain weapon, донской парсуны, painting and porcelain. On втором floor is exhibited collection of the product native Novocherkasska, great russian landscape painter Nikolaya Dubovskogo. Two branches museum memorial House-museum singer донских of the steppes Ivana Krylova and House-museum of the founder soviet батальной painting Mitrofana Grekova tell about lifes and creative activity these prominent master.
With Novocherkasskom are bound name not only known architect and artist, but also донского of the historian Vasiliya Suhorukova, writers Mihaila SHolohova, Fedora Kryukova, Alexander Serafimovicha, Petra Krasnova, Anatoliya Kalinina, philosopher Alekseya Loseva, composer Ivana SHishova, actresses of the Faith Komissarzhevskoy, musician Mihaila Erdenko and Konstantina Dumcheva, scientist Mushketova, Kashinskogo, Skryabina.
The Dominating position in architectral ensemble Novocherkasska occupies Voznesenskiy кафедральный troop cathedral, which erection lasted exactly one hundred years (1805 1905). Mortgaged at base of the city in holiday of the Ascension Hristova, he in the course of construction twice fell on reason of the weak foundation and haste in his (its) erection. The Third, realized, project in "нововизантийском stiletto" has developed the academician A.A. YAschenko. The Cathedral in size (his (its) height 74, 6 m) is third in Russia after temple Hrista Rescuer in Moscow and Isaakievskogo cathedral in SAINT PETERSBURG. Vozvedennyy on intersection Platovskogo and Ermakovskogo avenue, he is seen from everywhere for much kilometers from Novocherkasska. Originally his (its) dome were cover червонным gold (en), but main cross, made in Bohemias, украшен insertion from rock crystal for reflection of the sunshine. So his (its) величали "second sun of the Don".
Voznesenskiy cathedral is a main by temple донских cossacks. Burial vault is found In base of the cathedral for захоронения prominent military and church figures of the Don, but on chorus common-rooms with come picture, expressing the most significant episodes донской to histories. On of bells cathedral are installed tower, watch, but area itself is a main by area, майданом, where are noted the most most important events and holidays.
On enormous Cathedral area, paved бутовым stone, in 1904 is installed bronze monument Ermaku, famous донскому ataman, conqueror Siberia. The Final termination history ensemble Cathedral area has got in 1911, when to century Borodinskoy battles in burial vault of the cathedral were захоронены remainses M.I.Platova, V.V. ORLOVA-Denisova, I.E.Efremova, YA. P.Baklanova and metropolitan Ioanna. The monument hero Caucasian war general YA. P was installed On opposite side area. Baklanovu, carried here with graveyard Voskresenskogo девичьего of the priory in Petersburg. 15 May 1993 took place the solemn ceremony перезахоронения remains донских of the heroes in burial vault of the temple, but June 4 1995, at day of the city, was anew open monument YA. P.Baklanovu, reconstructed by moscow sculptor A.V.Tarasenko.
Architectral value town ensemble Novocherkasska will add the multiple mansions. They exactly "contend" between itself in plenty and variety architectural-decorative furnishings. High градостроительная culture architect HIH begin XX age was shown in that that they raised the разностильные of the building with provision for already existing, uniting their этажной высотностью, combination of the volumes and architectural-decorative decisions. The Facades mansion, executed in different architectral style, open-work lattices winch, parapet, awning, carved door will add him inimitable look.
"Plan of the city Novocherkasska rather good, and is located it is correct; he is divided into 76 quarters, consisting of 3 thousand places, кои all are surplus provided with land: first-class place has on facade 20 old russian unit of lengths and in depth from 30 before 60 old russian unit of lengths; the second 15 old russian unit of lengths on facade and from 30 before 50 in depth; the most smaller 10 old russian unit of lengths on avenue and from 20 before 30 old russian unit of lengths in depth", wrote in 1820-h year historian V.D.Suhorukoe. The Places "first-class" were conducted, first of all, for administrative buildings and for troop aristocracy, which strove;strived выстроить there mansions in "stolichny taste". The Places "second-class" were given less зажиточным cossack, but rest settled for that that remained on their share, and built the small buildings with stone along the bottom and upper wooden superstructure.
But to all quotient house was presented united requirement: they must were be built on "split-hair" confirmed facade, leaving on redden line of the street.
The Extensive area of the land allowed to lead the застройку of the streets not utter beside buildings, but interleave the wood plantings, having transformed them since time in comfortable palace-homesteads with internal courtyard, balcony and fruit garden.
The Representative mansions had not only atamans and generals, but also officials, trade cossacks, physicians, attorneys, notaries. The Exterior of the building as it were personified the property wealth and business reputation their owner.
In street застройке specifically stand out the building, in which veins and which built on its project architects. Such a mansions G.M.Salinikova (Atamanskaya, 61), S.I.Boldyreva (Krasnoarmeyskaya, 18), V.N.Kulikova (the Enlightenments, 139). They served the best advertisment professional skill architect.
The Cossacks differed not only military boldness and gallantry, but always gravitated to enlightenment and culture. Not each губернский city to Russia could boast such amount and set of the educational institutions, which had Novocherkassk at the beginning initially XX centuries: troop Platovskaya classical гимназия, Mariinskaya feminine гимназия, казачье юнкерское school, real school, spiritual and taecher's room to seminaries, епархиальное feminine school, spiritual school, Atamanskoe technical school, military-craft school, military-фельдшерская school, Jubilee school of the trade cossacks, commercial school, Donskoy emperor Alexander III cadet body, Mariinskiy institute of the noble maidens, Donskoy teacher's institute, Donskoy veterinary institute, Donskoy agricultural institute, music school, parochial schools, quotient of the educational institutions and hotels.
The Inauguration of the first high educational institution on Don - Donskogo pollytechnic institute took place in Novocherkasske October 5 1907 in building former дворянского hotel (now автотранспортный college). Then he was referred to as Novocherkasskim pollytechnic institute (NPI). In 1993 is renamed to NGTU, but in 1999 - in YURGTU (NPI) - South-Russian state technical university. The Place for construction of the large architectral ensemble of the institute was chose on territory Nikolaevskogo garden. Close to he was situated the buildings Mariinskogo institute of the noble maidens (now main body engineering-мелиоративной to academies) and Donskogo Alexander III cadet body (now soldierly part).
Designing the buildings of the pollytechnic institute have entrusted the visible polish architect B.S.Roguyskomu, one of the creators of the complex Varshavskogo pollytechnic institute (1898), in which he successfully used the experience a construction educational institutions of the West Europe.
The Scholastic body main, mountain, chemical, energy faculty of the institute are grouped around square-wave in plan of the internal courtyard, in which размещен complex of the atheletic buildings and old-time park. Each separate building функциально closed volume with rational and suitable planning to auditoriums, laboratory, scholastic cabinet, having its finished architectral image. Together with that all body are united by unity architectural-artistic decision in stiletto of the neoclassicism. As expressive композиционного acceptance decorative furnishings architect broadly uses the powerful pillars an дорического and ионического warrant, added whole ensemble majestic and монументальный nature. The Interesting decorative sculptural insertions in the manner of masks Zeus, Mars, монументальных relief, in символичной to form повествующих about purpose of the building. Particularly having dyed main body of the institute with парадной by stairway, colonnade and unique four-story roofed by courtyard with day light and bypass gallery. During mass action and celebration he contains several thousand people. Raising the complex of the buildings of the institute began in 1912. The Architect B.S.Roguyskomu to manage окончить construction only three scholastic bodies chemical, mechanical and mountain. Construction rest was terminated at period with 1924 on 1930 gg.
Novocherkassku to manage basically to save its history look. Instinctively word of the historian VD are recalled. Suhorukova: "Direct broad streets and greater area form the own beauty Novocherkasska". Novocherkassk city-monument. He has connected in itself for the past nearly bicentenary original history, traditionally high culture and research potential. With rebirth cossacks in 1990-e years Novocherkassk has returned itself status town main of the cossacks and became the capital Vsevelikogo Troops Donskogo, as well as the cossacks to Russia and Zarubezhiya.