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Rostov-on-Don — a city in the south of Russia, on the river Don, an administrative centre Rostovkoj of area and capital of Southern federal district. Before revolution merchant capital of Don.

Background of Rostov-on-Don Originally in 1730 under Anna Ioanovny's decree on Vasilevsky hillocks near to Starocherkasska on a place monastic ретрашемента, Peter I erected under the order, have erected in honour of St. Anna a fortress, but it could not carry out customs function. On December, 26th (on December, 15th on old style) 1749 on command already Elizabeths Petrovny the customs "has been built... On Don, at a mouth of Temernika, against the natural boundary, named the Rich well where also the Don Cossacks can conduct the trade with visitors Greeks, Turks and Armenians..." . The customs has been named by Temernitsky by name of the rivers. To the middle XVIII Temernitsky customs and port played the important role in an economic life of the southeast of Russia through which trade with ports of the Azov, Black and Mediterranean seas was conducted. The customs settlement has defined the first lay-out of the future Rostov. In 1761 under Elizabeth's decree at the Rich well the new fortress in honour of St. Dimitrija Rostov has been put and to 1763 under the direction of skilled military engineer A.I.Rigelmana it has been constructed. The system of its strengthenings had the original star-shaped form in the plan and has been erected duly of that time фортификационного arts [6]. On a central square there was a Pokrovsk cathedral, and by the end XVIII here was already 5 churches. In 1779 at will of empress Ekaterina to Don Armenians from Crimea which have based a city with the name Nakhichevan at a fortress of St. Dimitrija Rostov have been moved. In 1785 for all settlement Gorodovaja the reading and writing "is established" and the fortress receives a municipal government. The city of Rostov-on-DonuPosle of the termination of Russian-Turkish war 1768-1774 fortress loses value of boundary strengthening and in 1806 under Alexander's decree I it is named for the first time by the city of Rostov, and subsequently — Rostov-on-Don, unlike Rostov Great. In 1811 the district city of Rostov-on-Don of Ekaterinoslavsky province has been definitively formed. In 1835 garrison of a fortress of Dimitrija Rostov, the weapon, an ammunition, ammunition have been sent in the Anapsky fortress. The fortress territory began to be built up gradually, earthen shaft have been razed. In 1863 city has been included in structure of Area of an army Don that became a push to the further development of the industry and благоустроительным to works. The centre of Rostov is transferred on the Big Garden street where have broken the gardens, have constructed the municipal duma building, the state bank largest in the south of Russia, city Nikolaev hospital. To 1863 Rostov has been attached to the North Caucasian railway [7]. With 1865 in Rostov the waterpipe, with 1886 — phone, and with 1901 — the tram which has connected Rostov and Nakhichevan operates. Rostov-on-Don in the XX-th century In the beginning XX territorial border between two cities was actually erased, but Rostov has strengthened behind itself the leading part, and Nakhichevan represented now its part in which have remained still, local, independent of Rostov, municipal government bodies. In February 1904 it has been founded Rostov градоначальство where Rostov and Nakhichevan [8] have entered. The town governor had the rights of the civil governor, but was the military man. The Soviet power is established on November, 8th (on October, 26th on old style) 1917. In days of Civil war it was grasped by German armies and repeatedly White Guards. It is definitively released on January, 10th 1920. To 1924 Rostov-on-Don became the centre North Caucasian and from 1934 Azovo-Black Sea edges, with 1937 — the Rostov region. In the Great Patriotic War Rostov-on-Don has been twice grasped by fascist armies (on November, 21st November 1941, on July, 27th 1942 - on February, 14th 1943 and it has appeared among the most destroyed cities. Modern Rostov-on-Don — large industrial, cultural and a centre of science of the south of Russia.

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